single-stage space vehicle
As a part of a scientific-investigative program “Eagle” ordered by Russian Space Agency, investigations are being held in various design bureau on a possible development of a reusable single-stage space vehicle.
From 1993 till 1996 works on the “Eagle” program were done at OKB Zhukovsky, OKB Keldysh, and OKB Baranov etc. Statistics show that fully reusable single- or double-stage carrier fitted with various engines would be 30% lighter and much more cost-efficient as compared to “Space Shuttle” or the “Energy-Buran” system. Maximum cargo-capacity of the vehicle would be about 10-20 tones.
Among presented projects of a single-stage space-crafts were Tu-2000, Mig-2000, and modification of the “Neva” apparatus. Western analogue is NASP (USA).
Mig-2000 is a reusable space-vehicle with 300t take-off weight and 9t payload is capable of delivering loads to the 200 km orbit at 51º inclination. The sled would accelerate the space-craft to M=0.8 and then air-breathing propulsion with subsonic combustion would accelerate it to M=5. Propellants wer slush hydrogen and liquid oxygen. The vehicle would have 3000 km re-entry cross-range.
Final favor was given to the Tu-2000 project.
|Function||single-stage space vehicle|
|Dimensions & Weight|
|Core diameter, m||19,7|
|Take-off weight, kg||300000|
|Engines||Ramjet + liquid-propellant|
|Flight data (project)|
|Max. speed at athmosphere, M=||5|
|Re-entry cross-range, km||3000|
|Practical ceiling, m||20000|
References and Credits:
- Reusable single-stage space vehicle / Aerospase Herald 4/98 /
- Encyclopedia Astronautica / M.Wade /